An International Team of Scientists Works to Reduce Energy Consumption on Face Milling of Steel

Политехнический институт ЮУрГУ

Scientists at South Ural State University conducted several cutting experiments and determined the optimal modes of milling steel to reduce cost and power consumption, and increase the efficiency of the process. Scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues for the first time established the relationship of three factors of face milling of carbon steel workpieces to create resource-saving technologies. The results of the study were published in an article in the highly rated International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (Q1). 

The mathematical model of steel processing was created 

AISI 1045 carbon steel (Steel 45 is its Russian equivalent) is a very common structural material for a huge number of all kinds of engineering products, instrument making, shipbuilding, etc. An international team of scientists from Russia, Saudi Arabia and China investigated the process of face milling of carbon steel AISI 1045. The aim of the study was to reduce the energy consumption of the steel milling process, while improving the quality and efficiency of the operation. 

Scientists at the Institute of Engineering and Technology of SUSU, senior lecturer of the Department of Automated Engineering Technology of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Danil Pimenov and PhD, associate professor of the department of Foundry of the Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering Ivan Erdakov for the first time established the influence of three factors of face milling of carbon steel billets: steel feed speed, cutting speed and tool wear level on steel cutting quality parameters. 

The study took place in several stages. Prof. Adele Taha Abbas and Dr. Mahmoud Sayed SolimanMagdi Mostafa El Rayes from King Saudi University (Riyadh) have processed extensive data in this area. Then, SUSU scientists revealed a multidimensional pattern of parameters. After that, Dr. Munish Gupta from Shandong University (China) solved the optimization problem. Such an integrated approach in the study provides new scientific and practical knowledge for face milling of AISI 1045 steel, which will significantly reduce energy consumption. 

“We used the mathematical method developed by Chinese scientists, Gray Relational Analysis (GRA), in the search for optimal steel machining conditions. GRA is widely used in various fields of production, with the help of it complex multifactor multiparameter tasks are solved. The surface quality, the cost of the cutting tool components, the energy consumption, the wearing of the cutting tool, and material removal rate are the main parameters in this study. Several cutting experiments over different cutting lengths have been conducted and analyzed statistically to determine the optimum targeted cutting conditions. A multilayer regression analysis was conducted on obtained experimental results and obtaining nonlinear mathematical equations with high coefficient of determination,” Danil Pimenov says. 

For different stages of processing, scientists investigated the influence of cutting conditions (feed, cutting speed) on the wear process of the teeth of the end cut and studied the quality of the treated surface. Based on the experimental studies carried out by the method of multiparametric regression analysis, the scientists have calculated the optimal relationship between cutting power and processing cost. 


Danil Pimenov, senior lecturer of the Department of Automated Engineering Technology of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering 

Steel processing will become greener and cheaper 

The results of the study may help to evaluate both the technological parameters of face milling of AISI 45 steel (quality of the machined surface and productivity) and the parameters of resource efficiency (processing cost and cutting power consumption). This set of parameters is important in the development of modern and economical production. 

“At the moment, there is no comprehensive study of how the facet wear of the mills teeth influences on such indicators as surface quality, power consumption and operation cost. In today's competitive manufacturing systems, it is imperative to know these trends, and it is even better to have multi-level digital models to control these parameters as tool wear increases. It is important to study not only for some average wear, but also to study the behavior of the output parameters of face milling beyond these average values. The obtained dependences of surface quality, cost of operation, power consumption, productivity through implementation in modern digital production will significantly accelerate the process of technological preparation of production, and will also help to evaluate the economic and energy efficiency of the technological operation,” Ivan Erdakov says. 


PhD, associate professor of the department of Foundry of the Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy Engineering Ivan Erdakov 

Within the framework of the international scientific group of South Ural State University, King Saud University (Riyadh) and Shandong University (China), research is planned on an expanded range of alloy grades, including hard and heat-resistant steels, titanium and nickel alloys. With the help of computer engineering, it is planned to clarify some points in the theory of cutting for the main types of processing (turning, milling, drilling, grinding): the study of processing accuracy, surface roughness, the study of the influence of cutting conditions on cutting forces and power consumption. 

Today, in addition to technological issues, the economic and environmental aspects are important. Therefore, one of the areas of prospective research is resource-saving technology. In this area, scientists plan to study ways of improving cutting conditions along with the most important criteria of processing efficiency (evaluating the cost of technological operations, reducing power consumption during the process of cutting). In modern production, the environmental aspect is becoming increasingly relevant. And now it is important not only to make a product with the highest quality, but also to ensure minimal damage to the environment. 

In accordance with the strategies of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, South Ural State University is focused on the development of large scientific interdisciplinary projects in the field of the digital industry, materials science and ecology. SUSU participates in the 5-100 Project, intended to increase the competitiveness of Russian universities among the world's leading research and educational centers. 


Elena Kiryakova. Photo: Victoria Matveychuk 
Contact person: 
Elena Kiryakova, 272-30-11
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